7. System of injection of fuel
Under a cowl of the engine of the modern car systems of injection of fuel for a long time "set the fashion" in an inlet path of petrol engines already with electronic control. From outside fulfilled gases the three-running catalyst answering to level technicians is located. Thus, any questions, all power units Mondeo:« From the air filter to an exhaust tube »cope electronic means: the necessary fresh fuel mix is prepared by consecutive systems of injection of fuel, the three-running catalyst assists in this process. Igniting sparks operate безраспределительные ignition systems in sequence 1-3-4-2 (Duratec-HE) or 1-4-2-5-3-6 (Duratec-VE). They are, as well as all electronic management of the engine, under control of the powerful onboard computer (РСМ). In new Mondeo there is« Black Oak », a system of regulation of the engine of new generation which carries out supervision over« in bits and in bytes ». Black Oak, working out of affiliated firm Visteon of company Ford, works together with 32-bit COMPUTER Levanta, including processor Motorolla and the tyre of data transmission CAN. On the functioning system Black Oak reminds earlier used system of regulation of engine EEC.
The block of management РСМ with 32 categories and the CAN-tyre for data transmission
Gauges and актуаторы under an engine cowl
Electronic control by the engine – not for independent
New systems substantially do not demand special service – possible incorrect functioning, according to practice, the competent expert in the presence of the necessary measuring equipment can find out only. This fact shows increased requirements to those who independently wishes to be engaged in repair – workshops Ford during engine check rely on “WDS-Diagnose CD B8”. Therefore in the presence of malfunctions in a control system of the engine entrust the Mondeo to experts is better. However you all the same should know base principles of preparation of a gas mixture of the Mondeo. And only on this basis you can precisely classify appearing malfunctions. Thanks to it you will save on затратном diagnosing. Besides, you can accurately formulate the order for repair carrying out, and the accounting received subsequently will not cause in you any doubts. As an example for petrol engines Ford the detailed information on preparation топливовоздушной mixes of power unit Duratec-HE is more low resulted.
In detail about management of system of injection Duratec-HE
The block of management РСМ (it is built in in PATS): it is the central block of electronic control by the engine. The onboard computer constantly uses flowing «a material of the data» from the spatial parametrical characteristics (frequency of rotation, pressure in the inlet pipeline, temperature of inlet air and a cooling liquid and so on) and compares them to the fixed parametres in a database. After that the management block defines comparisons and counts among other duration of opening of an electromagnetic atomizer, volume of necessary fuel and structure топливовоздушной mixes. Thus block RSM reprogrammed: the major criterion for situations when it starts a following moment of calibration with the modified parametres.
Advantage: with assistance of the mobile diagnostic device «FDS 200» company Ford can erase easily elektronno-reprogrammed constant memory (ROM) and to "fill" with its new program of engine management. The corresponding service module for РСМ is established already at factory-manufacturer. The 16-polar diagnostic socket (DLC) "is hidden" in the left zone for feet at height of the block of safety locks.
The safety switch of system of injection of fuel: settles down on a lateral face of the left door. By means of the given switch it is possible to interrupt fuel giving at occurrence негерметичностей in system of giving of fuel, during failure or at strong collisions. Interruptions of an electric chain are distinguished by the jumped out button of switchings. Before activization of the safety button in the beginning check up fuel system on tightness, then result the ignition lock-switch in position «0» and press the button. Further turn the ignition key for some seconds in position «II» and then it is possible to enter the lock into position «I».
The item gauge of a cranked shaft (СКР): in engines Duratec settles down on a cover of the block of management sideways the shock-absorber of a cranked shaft. The gauge on a cogwheel (36 teeth a minus 1; «the tooth blank» for 1st cylinder is on 90 ° from ВМТ) registers exact angular position of a cranked shaft is inductive, and also current frequency of rotation of the engine, these measured values influence on:
Injected fuel and the beginning of injection,
The moment of an advancing of ignition and
At SKR-GAUGE refusal all engine management passes to "deep sleep": the engine fades and remains – before gauge replacement – "mute".
Hollow between a teeth 1: 90 ° from ВМТ the first cylinder.
The item gauge of camshafts (СМР): in engines Duratec settles down in a head of the block of cylinders before the first cam of an inlet camshaft. The gauge works on the basis of an inductive principle. Its signal uses СМР for recognition of 1st cylinder. It operates consecutive injection of fuel.
The gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid (EATS): "is inserted" under the coil of ignition and takes temperature of a cooling liquid in a small circle.
The gauge of absolute pressure in the inlet pipeline with the built in gauge of temperature of inlet air (ТМАР). Gauge TMAR allows to minimise possible losses of capacity at movement on mountain sites of roads or under a bias. It defines a current dominating working condition of the engine at the included ignition and full loading. As the measured value the gauge uses atmospheric pressure in an inlet collector. These parametres keeps and processes РСМ as basic pressure for corresponding pressure in an inlet gas pipeline at various conditions of loading. Signals of the built in IAT-gauge are in the beginning only base sizes at start-up of the cold engine or in warming up. In addition they are used by the MAR-GAUGE as correcting parametres as it levels by means of the «internal knowledge» various degrees of filling of cylinders. On the basis of all entrance signals from TMAR-GAUGE RSM counts weight of air necessary for the engine.
The detonation gauge (KS). «The mechanical tenant of vibrations» is the detonation gauge. Engines Duratec at the expense of the concerning high degree of compression are equipped with such gauges. This gauge takes places from outside всасывания directly on the block of cylinders of the engine between the second and third cylinders. In the mounted condition it should not contact at all to "weight" surrounding it.
As soon as «the detonation border» is reached, gauge KS submits signals on gauges SKR and СМР about uncontrollable combustion of a hot mix. On their basis РСМ displaces a corner of an advancing of ignition on 1,5 ° back. If signals proceed, the corner continues to decrease until combustion process is not normalised. If detonation noise do not appear within two seconds РСМ regulates the moment of ignition to border of a detonation or – at standard quality of fuel – till the ordered moment of ignition.
The detonation gauge: constantly on a listening post.
The gauge of position throttle заслонки (ТР). This gauge is screwed on the case throttle заслонки. It functions the same as also a rotary potentiometer, and influences on:
Frequency of rotation at idling,
Structure soaked up, a gas mixture (14,7: 1),
Regulation of the fulfilled gas and
Opening of a system contour of regulation.
The push-button switch of the steering mechanism with the amplifier (PSP). It removes the information from the pressure head pipeline between the pump of the hydraulic amplifier and the steering mechanism. As soon as pressure falls, for example, at maneuvering of the car with full turn of operated wheels, PSP opens and delivers on РСМ a signal on insignificant increase in frequency of rotation idling.
The pressure controller: the Push-button switch of the steering mechanism with the amplifier.
ljambda - The gauge (HO2S): in engines Duratec at factory two ljambda-gauges are established. The gauge 1 settles down directly in a collector of the fulfilled gases, the gauge to 2 final tube behind the catalyst. Both gauges analyze the residual maintenance of oxygen in the fulfilled gas and hand over this information on РСМ. Their signals influence on:
Quantity of injected air and
Functioning of system of preparation of a gas mixture (EVAP).
The cleaner: HO2S ljambda-gauges.
Ljambda-gauges make strong impact on functioning and catalyst service life. For appropriate functioning of the catalyst they give the information on constant change of slightly enriched and impoverished gas mixture. In a combination with automatic system CDE4 the additional starting catalyst placed directly in an exhaust collector is engaged in a filtration of the fulfilled gas also.
The regulating valve of system of idling (IAC). The given valve is In engines Duratec about throttle заслонки on an inlet collector. РСМ operates it by means of clock signals. Depending on frequency of a signal it is more or less than fresh air bypasses throttle заслонку through by-pass the valve.
The electromagnetic valve vortical заслонки settles down under an inclination behind the IAC-valve in an inlet collector. Its operating impulses are based on frequency of rotation of the engine and coal of opening throttle заслонки: depending on a situation the valve "is empty or filled".
The electromagnetic valve of the filter with the activated coal. In "foot" with system of regulation of engine Black Oak in 2000 Mondeo structurally changed electromagnetic valve works. At certain working conditions it opens and releases steams of fuel being in the filter for pass to an inlet collector.
The EGR-step-by-step engine: the step-by-step engine is in the back end of a head of the block of cylinders and sensitively reacts to digital signals from РСМ. In other words: step-by-step engines of power units Duratec realise very small step-by-step movements. Besides, in comparison with usual drives they in an operating time are not sensitive to vibrations and pressure fluctuations. The spindle will transform rotary motions of the step-by-step engine to lifting movement for which account the valve strictly opens. This feature improves not only an action principle рециркуляции the fulfilled gas, but also does unnecessary presence of additional components, for example, the differential valve of the fulfilled gas (DPEF).
The EGR-step-by-step engine
It is not sensitive to vibrations and pressure fluctuations.
Atomizers: atomizers with four apertures for injection and lateral giving of fuel take places in the general tube of the distributor of fuel. РСМ consistently operates atomizers. Their nozzles are established strictly under certain corners so that accordingly there were"two apertures right and two apertures left valves.
|| Shoulder to shoulder: atomizers with four apertures 1 for injection and lateral giving of fuel take places in the general tube of the distributor 2.
The gauge of temperature of external air (ААТ). The gauge of temperature of external air "is reserved" sits in the buffer in front at the left. Its signal operates
The indicator of external temperature on a guard of devices,
Generator adjustment (Smart Charge) and
The gauge of frequency of rotation of power shafts (OSS) and speeds of movement (VS): signals of both gauges processes РСМ for regulation of an air stream in idling system (IAC), for enrichment топливовоздушной mixes during acceleration and a mode of compulsory idling.
It is possible with restrictions – the self-help with injection system
As it is already noted in introduction to the given management, with system of injection it is better to professionals to transfer the majority of works. They have necessary control devices and corresponding knowledge. For example, in the presence of malfunctions in an electronic control system of the engine and that them properly to localise, it is necessary to spend a number of tests in certain sequence. Only so it is possible to establish defects and their consequences and to appoint a course of repair work. Presence of usual "house" knowledge is not enough for work with system of injection Mondeo. But here there are no bases for "panic": in practice possible damages to this system meet seldom.