> Brake system. Ford Mondeo (since 2000 of release)
Ford Mondeo since 2000
1. Introduction
2. Equipment
3. Care of the car
4. Engines
5. Greasing system
6. Cooling system
7. System of injection of fuel
8. Ignition system
9. Fuel system
10. Transmission
11. A running gear
12. Brake system
12.1. Check of level of a brake liquid
12.2. Check of brake system
12.3. Check of the amplifier of a brake drive
12.4. Check of brakes on functioning
12.5. Deterioration measurement колодок the disk brake mechanism
12.6. Check износадискового the brake mechanism
12.7. Prorolling of brake system
12.8. Replacement of a brake liquid
12.9. Dismantle of a compensatory tank of the main brake cylinder
12.10. Dismantle and installation of the main brake cylinder
12.11. Dismantle and installation of the amplifier of a brake drive
12.12. Dismantle and installation of brake hoses
12.13. Replacement колодок the disk brake mechanism
12.14. Replacement of disks of the brake mechanism
12.15. To make suitable a support and the piston of the brake mechanism – replacement of protective cuffs
12.16. A lay brake
12.17. Replacement of a cable of a lay brake
13. The electrotechnical equipment
14. Electroschemes
15. Car salon
16. A body
17. Technical characteristics
18. The help at malfunctions

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12. Brake system

Two cores independently working from each other of brake system (a foot brake and a manual brake) order Technical requirements to motor transport operation (StVZO). The basis: if one system other system can always brake the car refuses and lower its capacity. The brake system of yours Mondeo has диагонально the divided brake system – the separate brake contour connects accordingly one forward wheel and opposite on a diagonal a back wheel: if one of contours a forward and back wheel of other contour provide braking process refuses. With only one active brake contour you Mondeo will stop considerably later, than usually. You will notice refusal of one of contours, however, not only on the extended brake way, but also simultaneously on the increased course of a pedal of a brake and a burning control bulb on a guard of devices.

Antiblocking system (ABS), emergency brake system (EBA), антипробуксовочная system (TCS), electronic system of distribution of brake forces (EBD), the electronic program of stabilisation (ESP)

ABS and TCS raise active safety of driving, EBD replaces a mechanical regulator of brake effort and EBA (option) raises initial brake pressure at emergency brake process. Function ABS keeps full ability of management and at full braking, TSC improves stability in a direction at accelerations on the broken road. As other active safety components in modern brake configurations became electronic distribution of brake effort (EBD) and emergency brake system (EBA). EBD becomes active to ABS, it raises brake stability thanks to that an electronic way carries out exact adjustment проскальзывания back wheels. The emergency brake system establishes in dependence of speed from which the brake pedal has been pressed, whether there is a full braking or quite normal braking. If the badge costs on full braking EBА increases brake pressure automatically to the greatest possible value – even then when the brake pedal is not completely pressed yet. The assistant to process of braking, thus, is the assistant in reducing a brake way – can be, on solving some centimetres. Used in Mondeo the antiblocking system contains the electronic and hydraulic adjusting block (HECU). Both systems are concluded in one general aluminium case. HECU is used precisely to register frequencies of rotation of the wheels, the separate gauge is established to each wheel: EBD and TCS use the same signals. HECU works with восемью electromagnetic valves, hydraulic, resulted from the direct current electric drive the delivery pump and two stores of low pressure. In Mondeo all wheels can be regulated separately till the speed of 120 km/h. On the back bridge as "sample" that wheel which the first is suitable for blocking is used. At occurrence of system errors ABS, EBA, EBD and TCS are switched off – braking process functions further without "assistants", as usual brake system. Hindrances in system are distinguished on alarm bulb ABS: it does not die away any more after corresponding self-testing, and is shone constantly. System ABS Mondeo is completely diagnosed, codes of malfunctions архивируются in constant memory on demand. Besides, Ford delivers Mondeo at will with system ESP.

Dispensing of brake capacity – the electronic two-planimetric pump

Energy of braking in system is distributed by means of the electronic two-planimetric pump. Each of four separate regulating channels is correlated with pair electromagnetic valves (one inlet and one final valve). Inlet valves are usually opened and have switched apertures (a small aperture for exact regulation of small expenses of a stream at brake contact, the big aperture for the minimum hydraulic resistance at usual braking).

The analysis of process of braking – EVE

EVE already at a stage of pressing of a pedal of a brake distinguishes, such pressing by usual procedure is or is caused by a panic situation on road. In a situation "panic" EVE raises initial brake pressure automatically to border of blocking of wheels. It helps also to the "not skilled" driver the Mondeo with critical situations to brake with theoretically shortest brake way. If pressure upon a pedal decreases to the programmed value EVE switches management only to the driver. The assistant to emergency braking in Mondeo is built in block NBZ (ГТЦ) / the amplifier of brake effort.

Depends on speed of pressing a brake pedal: initial brake pressure.

1 — with EVE,
2 — usual brake system,
And — limiting border of blocking,
Р — brake pressure,
F — effort to a pedal.

Management фунционированием АВС - HECU

HECU operates functioning АВС, carries out calculation of speed depending on signals from wheel gauges of frequencies of rotation. Supervises all electric components and writes down parametres of failures. At the included ignition before a start of motion the system carries out started HECU self-testing. During movement all electric connections are under vigilant eye HECU. This process is spent taking into account priorities, and also with check of passableness of separate electric chains. Simultaneously electromagnetic valves are exposed to regular check on functioning: the system for this purpose gives out an electric impulse. Possible malfunctions quickly also are purposefully read out at station Ford by means of a WDS-tester. The diagnostic socket for this purpose is at the left under a guard of devices.

The terminator проскальзывания back wheels – EBD

EBD limits, for milliseconds before inclusion of the basic system, проскальзывание back wheels. It constantly compares проскальзывание on back and forward wheels and accordingly doses out or distributes brake effort. Functioning EBD usually occurs imperceptibly, its technics – irrespective of a condition of loading of the car – realises the minimum brake way. Besides it, EBD replaces in system a usual regulator of brake effort.

About 50 km/h – TCS are active

TCS it is integrated into system ABS Mondeo together with two disconnecting electromagnetic valves and two hydraulic inlet valves. This system, depending on need, is active to border in 50 km/h. From its application it is possible to win at sudden accelerations from a place and, in particular, at maneuvers on turns, and also a steering of yours Mondeo: if TCS registers проскальзывание a forward wheel the rotating pneumatic tyre is braked until it again will not restore contact.

Automatically brakes separate wheels – ESP

ESP stabilises movement parametres in boundary zones of dynamic properties. It supports the driver the target brake capture on separate wheels or correction of engine management concerning preservation of a course of your car. However to spite of the theoretical preconditions (dreams) on absolute safety – borders of physics of movement to establish ESP not under force: there, where "the head" from the very beginning refuses, even the advanced automobile electronics will appear aside.

Brakes of Mondeo

Ford Mondeo slows down the movement by means of four disk brake mechanisms. Lobbies, with internal ventilation, disks have a thickness of 24 mm and diameter of 300 mm. Pistons in the size of 60 mm take them in pincers. On the back bridge disks in the thickness of 12 mm and diameter 280 mm on which pistons in the size of 36 millimetres operate settle down.

That floating скобы without the big expenses of force received correct "sting", in Mondeo there is an amplifier of a brake drive which is directly connected with a brake pedal. Direct contact to a brake pedal allows to save, besides, and on the intermediate lever. Driver Mondeo notices an absent detail in a comfortable point of pressure and well dosed out generation of pressure in brake system.

АБС in a combination with EDB concerns also standard equipment of brake system Mondeo. EDB uses сенсорику АБС for recognition of frequencies of rotation of wheels. During braking process to the back wheels supervised EDB, brake pressure that they always braked near to border of blocking with the maximum slowing down force "is given" always so much. The system automatically considers a corresponding condition of loading, it reduces a brake way even out of a range of regulation АБС.

System ABS Mondeo with the twelve intervals of regulation in a second answers modern level of technics. It provides, at unlimited controllability, the maximum delay and creates a basis for TCS and ESP.

TCS in low ranges of rate brakes exclusively separate wheels. On other party of 50 km/h TCS are "disturbed" in addition by engine management: it reduces further at the expense of sample of cylinders a fuel diet and-or the modified moments of ignition and a twisting moment until on приводных wheels the regular traction relation again will not dominate.

In addition estimates Ford reserves of safety of running gear Mondeo by means of ESP. As interactive system ESP reduces capacity of the engine on an ascending scale and purposefully the separate wheel brakes. ESP "provokes" "capture" the moment of roving which automatically stabilises the car. The system works completely independently with the "active" amplifier of a brake drive.

On this place we will meaningly repeat for you: to "headless" drivers ESP does not create safety pillows – if borders of physics of movement are exceeded, "start" – even in the presence of ESP – is inevitable.

Four channels, twelve valves, operating electronics for ABS, TCS, EBD: block ESP.

1 — the Self-soaking up 2-planimetric hydraulic pump,
2 — the Hydraulic block,
3 — the Electronic block of management,
4 — the pressure Gauge.

The case – two functions: the gauge of speed of roving and cross-section acceleration. 1 dual block of gauges.

Exact measurement: the gauge of angular position of a steering wheel.

1 — the Column of the steering mechanism,
2 — Electromagnets,
3 — the Measuring cogwheel,
4 — CAN-connection,
5 — the Microprocessor,
6 — an AMR-element.

The review – elements of brake system

Brake system with a two-planimetric hydraulic drive (mainly with диагонально the divided hydraulic drive):

Accordingly the separate brake contour is established by connection of a forward wheel and opposite on a diagonal of a back wheel.

The main brake cylinder (ГТЦ): Will transform mechanical effort of a pedal of a brake to hydraulic effort. Cares of fast pressure decline in system after отпускания pedals.

The amplifier of a brake drive (сервотормоз): It is located in a motor compartment in front of the main brake cylinder. At each process of braking strengthens a mechanical pressure force on a pedal approximately on 60 %. In cars with ESP "the active" amplifier of a brake drive is established. As soon as in Mondeo the electronic program of stabilisation is started, in the amplifier the electromagnetic valve becomes more active. Thanks to it from a membrane underside, even without pressing a brake pedal, pressure nearby 10 bar is created. The amplifier of a brake drive receives "energy" through a hose directly from the inlet pipeline or the separate vacuum pump (diesel engine). At braking connected by the piston with ГТЦ the membrane reacts to a difference between pressure of external air and low pressure in an inlet collector.

The wheel brake cylinder (КТЦ): pressure of a brake liquid in КТЦ can reach 120 bar. Pistons KTTS transfer pressure in pipeline system to free pistons in supports of disk brake mechanisms (the disk brake mechanism) or wheel brake cylinders (the drum-type brake mechanism). The Piston stroke in disk brakes is transferred to disks brake колодки or in drum-type brakes by brake overlays to a drum.



The forward bridge

Disk of the brake mechanism: synchronously rotates with a bridge nave. Takes away warmth of a friction in atmosphere.

Скоба the disk brake mechanism: in Mondeo floating скоба "clings" a brake disk. For moving скобы from its inside accordingly there is a piston of the brake cylinder.

The disk brake mechanism with floating скобой: 1 — Floating скоба, 2 — Sliding pins.

The back bridge

Disk of the brake mechanism: synchronously rotates with a bridge nave. Takes away warmth of a friction in atmosphere.

Скоба the disk brake mechanism: in Mondeo floating скоба with the manual brake mechanism "clings" a brake disk. For moving скобы from its inside there is accordingly a piston of the brake cylinder.

Pressing of a pedal of a brake: created in ГТЦ system pressure operates on the piston brake скобы and presses in floating скобе internal brake колодку to a disk of the brake mechanism. Thereof the sliding support of the disk brake mechanism also to this disk is displaced.

Clearing of a pedal of a brake: hydraulic pressure instantly falls, the piston lining delays the piston together with a support from a brake disk. Between brake колодкой and a disk there is an insignificant backlash – the brake disk again rotates freely.

Antiblocking system

The block of management АБС: constantly processes signals of frequencies of rotation from wheel gauges and compares them to the programmed values. If different frequencies of rotation signal about imminent danger of blocking on one or several wheels, the control mean makes active the hydraulic block – on a corresponding wheel brake pressure decreases until it will synchronously not rotate with other wheels. Such variable game is made during all process of braking for a step in milliseconds.

Components АБС Mondeo:

1 — the Main brake unit (HCU),
2 — the Back wheel gauge of frequency of rotation, 3 Forward wheel gauge of frequency of rotation.

Hydraulic block ABS: consists of the electropump and the block of valves with electromagnetic valves. By pressing a brake pedal in the main brake cylinder pistons press through through клапанный the block a brake liquid to wheels. Thus this block regulates brake pressure in pipelines of a brake drive which connect a forward wheel to a corresponding diagonal opposite back wheel. When АБС comes into effect, the management block gives out a command brake pressure to lower. The brake liquid flows directly from клапанного the block back in a compensatory tank. If brake pressure again rises, the brake liquid flows from a compensatory tank through the hydropump directly in a corresponding brake contour. As soon as the pump has earned, you about it learn on slightly pulsing pedal of a brake.

Wheel gauges of frequency of rotation: with a small backlash from a cogwheel (a pulse wheel) it is strongly connected to a wheel nave. The pulse wheel rotates with the gear ledges depending on rotation wheels (speed) faster or more slowly by the gauge. Each tooth of a pulse wheel displays short jump of pressure. Thanks to it in the gauge there is an alternating voltage which changes the frequency according to frequency of rotation of a wheel. Gauges measure frequencies of rotation of wheels and in the form of electric signals send the data about them to the management block.

Inductive measurement of frequency of rotation: the wheel gauge of turns.

1 — the Target signal,
2 — the Zone of contact,
3 — installation Position (the right back wheel),
4 — the Gauge.

ESР – the module: ESP – the module in Mondeo is based on the ABS-MODULE of type Mk20E-I with TCS. Only here hydraulic клапанный the block has other two valves with which help back wheels are separately slowed down. The ESP-module contacts through the CAN-tyre of the data with РСМ.

Speed of roving/gauge of cross-section acceleration: in Mondeo it is possible to find the micromechanical double gauge which in the gear change lever is measured by speed of roving and cross-section acceleration. At normal movement, and also at easy accelerations or delays the gauge does not work. As soon as the managements established in the block acceleration or delay parametres will be exceeded, in the management block the corresponding signal is developed.

Failures in work of brake system ABS: at ignition inclusion the control bulb of brake system ABS lights up. Subsequently at the working engine it dies away in two seconds. If during movement this bulb lights up, in system there was a failure. Naturally, in this situation it is possible to go further – however without participation of this "brake" assistant. For system check it is necessary быстренько to find workshop Ford. For as "layman" in АБС without corresponding verifying devices you can check up certainly a correctness штекерных connections to the management block, the relay, to wheel gauges and the hydraulic block.

Check of brake system – at strong doubt a variant for a workshop

On each metre of public road highways the brake system solves problems of your safety and safety of other participants of traffic. From here a conclusion: functioning brakes is a life insurance. Therefore be not afraid to remove from time to time a wheel and to check a condition of brake overlays and disks. Works on maintenance service of brake system are not so difficult. However put to brakes the hands only in that case if you are absolutely convinced: at the most slightest doubt give the brakes better a special workshop for which all "know-how" are known and where it is possible to find the necessary tool.

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11.20. Check of a condition of tyres
The following page
12.1. Check of level of a brake liquid